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3rd Batch请查收!您的问题解答清单

3rd Batch请查收!您的问题解答清单

2020年12月16日 3462次 admin

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2020年度线上大会 Q&A专栏

The Open Group 2020 “数字优先”年度峰会于11月28日正式落下帷幕。会上各位参会嘉宾从多个维度积极探讨了如何有效搭建架构来指导实操、应设立何种相应组织机制来配合组织开展数字化战略、应如何面对转型中的挑战及问题、如何实现IT与业务间的协同等等相关话题。

 

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Q:一般强调架构牵引的情况下,BA的标准角色定位是什么?BA的组织归属和IT产品团队的关系是什么?

What is the standard role of BA under the general emphasis on architectural traction? What is the relationship between the organizational ownership of BA and the IT product team?

 

庄鹏

Peng Zhuang

企业架构的目标是要服务于企业战略(考虑合规,收入和利润增长等),为了支持企业战略的实现,往往要定义一系列的架构行动方案,对于具体支持系统或产品提出要求或变更,比如改造应用系统以支持企业级服务等,进一步的就会形成对该应用系统或者产品的能力需求,BA的角色就是需要落实这些业务能力为活动、流程、交互等,系统架构师和BA关注于单个产品和应用,企业架构师关注于企业级能力对战略的支撑。

The goal of enterprise architecture is to serve the corporate strategy (considering compliance, revenue and profit growth, etc.). In order to support the realization of corporate strategy, it is often necessary to define a series of architectural action plans, and make requirements or changes to specific support systems or products. For example, transforming the application system to support enterprise-level services, etc., will further form the capability requirements for the application system or product. The role of the BA is to implement these business capabilities as activities, processes, interactions, etc., and the system architect and BA focus on individual products and applications, enterprise architects focus on the strategic support of enterprise-level capabilities.

 

Q:实践的环境有什么变化,或者对行业有什么要说的吗?

Is there any change in the practical environment, or is there anything to say about the industry?

 

徐满洲

Manzhou Xu

越来越多的企业认识到IT系统繁杂,缺乏顶层设计,项目各自为政会对运维、IT投入、快速适应业务变化等有很大影响。需要从架构层面着手探寻解决之道。

很多企业对方法论的认知度不够,被动了解,希望The Open Group能加大推广宣传力度,不仅仅是针对会员的。尤其非会员的推广宣传更应该加大力度。

More and more companies realize that IT systems are complicated and lack of  top-level design, and that each project will have a great impact on operation and maintenance, IT investment, and rapid adaptation to business changes. The solution needs to be explored from the architectural level.

Many companies have insufficient awareness of methodology and passive understanding. Hope The Open Group can increase its promotion and publicity, not just for members, also for non-members as well.

 

Q:请问进行实践过程中遇到最难的问题是什么?

What is the most difficult problem encountered during practice?

 

徐满洲

Manzhou Xu

你也说架构我也说架构,但是很多时候说的不见得是同一个概念。我说的是EA、他说的可能是应用架构或其他的架构。EA注重架构元素及元素背后的关联,而非仅仅单个领域的概念罗列。所以,统一语言任重道远。TOGAF®与ArchiMate®是企业IT管理的内功,是可以提升甲方掌控能力的方法。

You talk about architecture and I also talk about architecture, but many times we are not necessarily talking about the same concept. I am talking about EA, he may be talking about application architecture or other architectures. EA focuses on architectural elements and the relationships behind the elements, not just a list of concepts in a single field. Therefore, to define a unified language has a long way to go. TOGAF® and ArchiMate® are the internal skills of enterprise IT management, and they are methods that can improve Party A's control ability.

 

Q:各位老师好!本人作为BA,时常会有2个疑惑:①4A集成的架构工作,更多指导变革规划蓝图设计,在关键变革举措的专项项目落地过程中,角色定位时常比较模糊,更多是裁判而非运动员角色。②为解决1的问题,BA需进行详细具体的工作,如解决方案设计、一线试点推行、用户需求调研等,这样便压缩了进行宏观的洞察规划和架构看护。

① 4A's integrated architecture work provides more guidance for the blueprint design of change planning. During the implementation of special projects of key change initiatives, the role positioning is not clear, and it is more of the referee than the role of the player. ②In order to solve the problem of 1, often BA goes deep into solution design, first-line pilot implementation, user demand research and other detailed and specific work, which leaves little time to do macro insight planning and architecture care.

 

程燕

Yan Cheng

可能你的变革架构蓝图做的还不够具体和明确,或者无法有效传递给项目人员,如果他们在做事时无法得到架构指导,事后根据架构设计者进行评判,而没有公共的视图,那么自然就会让架构从实向虚了。

Maybe your change architecture blueprint is not specific and clear enough, or it cannot be effectively passed to the project personnel. If they cannot get architectural guidance when doing things, they will be judged based on the architecture designer afterwards, and there is no public view, then naturally, the architecture will lose its importance of existence.

 

Q:数字化战略是否需要相应的组织机制配合?

Whether the digital strategy needs the corresponding organizational mechanism to cooperate?

 

贾建国

Jianguo Jia

数字化作为组织的战略组成,相应的组织机制配合是必赢的基础之一。数字化是组织的变革、流程的变革和工作安排的变化,这些都要有相应的组织机制配合。

Digitalization is the strategic component of an organization, and the coordination of corresponding organizational mechanism is one of the winning bases. Digitalization is the change of the organization, the change of the process and the change of the work arrangement, which should be supported by the corresponding organizational mechanism.

 

Q:请问东航云化转型过程中遇到的最大挑战或问题是什么?

What is the biggest challenge or problem encountered by China Eastern in the process of cloudification transformation?

 

张希运

Xiyun Zhang

东航正处于数字化转型1.0与2.0之间的换挡期,从IT视角分析,东航IT正积极、主动地从Cloud1.0向Cloud 2.0转变,就像是”在高速路上边跑换轮子”,过程中不可避免的会遇到一些难题和困难,其中最大的挑战在于:(1)IT应用系统传统架构居多,90%的应用系统需要做微服务化架构改造,在实施经验方面还比较欠缺,需要持续能力提升 ;(2)云化转型覆盖整个研发体系,涉及产品侧、研发侧、基础侧的方方面面,所以云化改造需要有体系化的设计方案,并且需要有一个强有力的技术部门牵头负责,逐步推进,这样才有效果。

China Eastern Airlines is in the shifting period between digital transformation 1.0 and 2.0. From an IT perspective, China Eastern IT is actively and proactively transitioning from Cloud 1.0 to Cloud 2.0, which is like "changing wheels on the highway." Inevitably, we will encounter some problems and difficulties. The biggest challenges are: (1) Most of the IT application systems are based on the traditional architecture, 90% of the application systems need to be modified into micro-service architecture, and there is still a lack of implementation experience, which requires continuous Capacity improvement;(2) Cloud transformation covers the entire R&D system, involving all aspects of product, R&D, and foundation. Therefore, cloud transformation requires a systematic design plan, and a strong technical department takes the lead. Push forward, so that it has an effect.

 

Q:东航云化转型工作怎样实现IT与业务之间的协同?

How does China Eastern Airlines' cloud transformation work realize the synergy between IT and business?

 

张希运

Xiyun Zhang

我们刘董事长在公司大会上曾讲过,“数字化是航空公司的最高形态”,我们也一直认为数字化转型是IT与业务部门共同需要面对的问题,在公司经过这么多年的信息化建设,公司上下各级领导和员工都牢牢树立了“IT引领”的发展理念,信息化发展、数字化应用已全面渗透到了公司的企业管理、安全运行、生产经营等方方面面,在行业内也产生了积极影响,与此同时,业务部门与IT对数字化转型的目标就比较统一。在实际IT建设过程中,我们制定了诸多管理措施,来持续维护IT与业务之间的工作协同,效果不错,比如让业务人员承担产品管理的职责、引入敏捷实践、合建工作坊项目等等,这样更加保障IT与业务协作关系的稳定性。

Our Chairman Mr. Liu said at the company meeting that “Digitalization is the highest form of airlines”. We have always believed that digital transformation is something that IT and business departments need to face together. After so many years of information construction in the company, The leaders and employees at all levels of the company have firmly established the development concept of "IT-led". Informatization development and digital applications have fully penetrated the company's corporate management, safe operation, production and operation, etc., and have also produced positive results in the industry. At the same time, business departments and IT have more unified goals for digital transformation. In the actual IT construction process, we have formulated many management measures to continuously maintain the work collaboration between IT and business, and the effect is good, such as letting business personnel take the responsibility of product management, introducing agile practices, and building joint workshop projects, etc. , This will more guarantee the stability of the relationship between IT and business collaboration.

 

Q:企业存量系统的架构与数字化转型要求下的架构如何融合?

How to integrate the architecture of the enterprise inventory system with the architecture under the requirements of digital transformation?

 

李建民

Jianmin Li

以数字化转型的视角,去重新打量传统企业的架构实践,考虑三个主要的方向的要点:

§求差异,以数字化手段重构客户体验。

§谋格局,在数字化建设过程中创造新的业务模式,以满足数字化的业务能力而更好的实现新旧架构的融合。

§孵创新,在企业内部通过管理机制,培育、孵化业务和技术的“杀手锏”,倒逼传统架构的迁移,推动数字化架构的逐步建立。

从技术架构的角度,目前的交付技术日新月异。DevOps可以被无缝的贯穿全过程的信息化项目交付,但传统架构的改造则需要遵循“从轻到重”的原则进行。基于云化、大数据技术的平台日渐普及,需要“老人新变,逐步替代;新人新办,全新构建”方式来融合。

From the perspective of digital transformation, to re-examine the architecture practice of traditional enterprises, consider three main directions:

1 Seek differences and reconstruct customer experience with digital means.

2 Seek a pattern and create new business models in the process of digital construction to meet digital business capabilities and better achieve the integration of new and old architectures.

3 Incubate innovation, through the management mechanism within the enterprise, cultivate and incubate the "killer" of business and technology, which forces the migration of traditional architecture and promotes the gradual establishment of digital architecture.

From the perspective of technical architecture, the current delivery technology changes with each passing day. DevOps can be delivered by informatization projects that run through the entire process seamlessly, but the transformation of the traditional architecture needs to follow the principle of "light to heavy". Platforms based on cloudification and big data technology are becoming more and more popular, and they need to be integrated in a way of "new changes for the elderly, and gradual replacement; new people, new establishments, new construction".

 

Q:物联网数据采集方面,大家都采用的什么协议和标准?

What protocols and standards are commonly used for data collection on the Internet of Things?

 

张瑞洲

Ruizhou Zhang

QTT、 DDS、 AMQP、XMPP、 JMS、 REST、 CoAP这几种协议都已被广泛应用,并且每种协议都有至少10种以上的代码实现,都宣称支持实时的发布/订阅的物联网协议,但是在具体物联网系统架构设计时,需考虑实际场景的通信需求,选择合适的协议。

Several protocols such as QTT, DDS, AMQP, XMPP, JMS, REST, and CoAP have been widely used, and each protocol has at least 10 kinds of code to implement. all claiming to support real-time publish/subscribe IoT protocols, However, when designing a specific IoT system architecture, it is necessary to consider the communication requirements of the actual scenario and select an appropriate protocol.

 

Q:物联网在行业中的应用,都取得了什么样的经济效益和社会效益?

What kind of economic and social benefits have been achieved in the application of the Internet of Things in the industry?

 

张瑞洲

Ruizhou Zhang

有些行业应用取得了社会效益,有的取得了经济效益,有的两者兼而有之,在我分享的应用中,财税物联网应用更多的体现社会效益,体现税收应收尽收的原则;物联网金融应用则是两种效益都有,经济效益占比更高,但是要想通过经济效益来实现一个公司的市场化独立生存,还是有些困难;装备智慧物联应用更多的是社会效益,促进了供应商的智能化和数字化,同时提高了整个装备产品的质量。

Some industry's IoT applications have achieved social benefits, some have achieved economic benefits, and some have both. In the applications case I shared, the application of the Internet of Finance and Taxation reflects more social benefits and reflects the principle of tax collection. Internet of Things financial applications have both benefits, more reflected in economic benefits but it is still somewhat difficult to achieve a company’s market-oriented independent survival through economic benefits; Smart IoT applications are more reflected in social benefits which promoted the intelligence and digitization of suppliers, and at the same time improve the quality of the entire equipment products.

 

Q:对于近年来企业管理软件(比如ERP)的发展转型趋势,比如ERP云化,或者ERP被新的名词取代,企业应该如何选择和应对?

For the development and transformation trend of enterprise management software (such as ERP) in recent years, such as ERP cloud, or ERP replaced by a new term, how should enterprises choose and respond?

 

彭斐

Fei Peng

不管是所谓的企业4.0时代,Forrester所提出的从ERP到DOP转型,还是ERP云化或是ERP的创新平台化,ERP的时代性改变本质上是为了适应更新的数字化需求。新型ERP是有一些共性的,关键词比如社区化,内嵌人工智能,低代码,易用性和改进的用户体验,每年2-4次大版本升级等。建议企业客户对于新型ERP进行开放性的了解,并结合企业需求评估供应商的产品,包括供应商提供的案例和最佳实践等,以选择最适合的产品和服务。

Whether it's the so-called Enterprise 4.0 era, Forrester's proposed transition from ERP to DOP, or the ERP cloud or ERP innovation platform, ERP's generational change is essentially an adaptation to newer digital needs. The new ERP has some commonalities, such as community-based, embedded ARTIFICIAL intelligence, low code, ease of use and improved user experience, 2-4 major version upgrades per year, etc. It is suggested that the enterprise customers have an open understanding of the new ERP and evaluate the suppliers' products, including the cases and best practices provided by the suppliers, in combination with the enterprise's needs, so as to select the most suitable products and services.

 

Q:体系性治理不仅需要基于模型的表达方法,还需要具体的支持方法和流程,这方面您有什么认识?

Systematic governance not only requires model-based representation methods, but also needs specific support methods and procedures. What is your take?

 

程燕

Yan Cheng

当前任何一个组织不是缺少模型,而是在于流程模型、技术模型、财务模型等等不同领域的模型分散,内容重叠,模型再次形成孤岛,模型数据不能互通,无法相互转换,难于关联分析,导致多视角分析产生的结果无法形成有效的综合方案,甚至模型解读的同类数据都不一致。因此,从实施层面看,模型虽然是通往准确描述、沟通、分析与仿真的基础变革手段,但配套的方法、以及方法指导下的流程如果不能建立,那么体系化管理仍将是空中楼阁,无法真正驾驭全局的变化。

Current no organizations are lack of model, the problem is that the different models, such as process model, technology model and financial model, are separate with overlapped contents, in this case, models become islet again, data can't be converted and it is difficult to conduct correlation analysis, which results in the failure to form an effective comprehensive solution for the results from multi-perspective analysis, and even the similar data interpreted by the models are inconsistent. Therefore, from the perspective of implementation, although the model is the fundamental change means leading to accurate description, communication, analysis and simulation, if the supporting method and the process under the guidance of the method cannot be established, the systematic management will still be a castle in the air, unable to truly control the global changes.


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