3rd Batch请查收！您的问题解答清单｜ 直击“数字优先” The Open Group 2020年度线上大会
The Open Group 2020 “数字优先”年度峰会于11月28日正式落下帷幕。会上各位参会嘉宾从多个维度积极探讨了如何有效搭建架构来指导实操、应设立何种相应组织机制来配合组织开展数字化战略、应如何面对转型中的挑战及问题、如何实现IT与业务间的协同等等相关话题。
将于The Open Group APAC订阅号陆续呈现
What is the standard role of BA under the general emphasis on architectural traction? What is the relationship between the organizational ownership of BA and the IT product team?
The goal of enterprise architecture is to serve the corporate strategy (considering compliance, revenue and profit growth, etc.). In order to support the realization of corporate strategy, it is often necessary to define a series of architectural action plans, and make requirements or changes to specific support systems or products. For example, transforming the application system to support enterprise-level services, etc., will further form the capability requirements for the application system or product. The role of the BA is to implement these business capabilities as activities, processes, interactions, etc., and the system architect and BA focus on individual products and applications, enterprise architects focus on the strategic support of enterprise-level capabilities.
Is there any change in the practical environment, or is there anything to say about the industry?
很多企业对方法论的认知度不够，被动了解，希望The Open Group能加大推广宣传力度，不仅仅是针对会员的。尤其非会员的推广宣传更应该加大力度。
More and more companies realize that IT systems are complicated and lack of top-level design, and that each project will have a great impact on operation and maintenance, IT investment, and rapid adaptation to business changes. The solution needs to be explored from the architectural level.
Many companies have insufficient awareness of methodology and passive understanding. Hope The Open Group can increase its promotion and publicity, not just for members, also for non-members as well.
What is the most difficult problem encountered during practice?
You talk about architecture and I also talk about architecture, but many times we are not necessarily talking about the same concept. I am talking about EA, he may be talking about application architecture or other architectures. EA focuses on architectural elements and the relationships behind the elements, not just a list of concepts in a single field. Therefore, to define a unified language has a long way to go. TOGAF® and ArchiMate® are the internal skills of enterprise IT management, and they are methods that can improve Party A's control ability.
① 4A's integrated architecture work provides more guidance for the blueprint design of change planning. During the implementation of special projects of key change initiatives, the role positioning is not clear, and it is more of the referee than the role of the player. ②In order to solve the problem of 1, often BA goes deep into solution design, first-line pilot implementation, user demand research and other detailed and specific work, which leaves little time to do macro insight planning and architecture care.
Maybe your change architecture blueprint is not specific and clear enough, or it cannot be effectively passed to the project personnel. If they cannot get architectural guidance when doing things, they will be judged based on the architecture designer afterwards, and there is no public view, then naturally, the architecture will lose its importance of existence.
Whether the digital strategy needs the corresponding organizational mechanism to cooperate?
Digitalization is the strategic component of an organization, and the coordination of corresponding organizational mechanism is one of the winning bases. Digitalization is the change of the organization, the change of the process and the change of the work arrangement, which should be supported by the corresponding organizational mechanism.
What is the biggest challenge or problem encountered by China Eastern in the process of cloudification transformation?
东航正处于数字化转型1.0与2.0之间的换挡期，从IT视角分析，东航IT正积极、主动地从Cloud1.0向Cloud 2.0转变，就像是”在高速路上边跑换轮子”，过程中不可避免的会遇到一些难题和困难，其中最大的挑战在于：(1）IT应用系统传统架构居多，90%的应用系统需要做微服务化架构改造，在实施经验方面还比较欠缺，需要持续能力提升 ；(2）云化转型覆盖整个研发体系，涉及产品侧、研发侧、基础侧的方方面面，所以云化改造需要有体系化的设计方案，并且需要有一个强有力的技术部门牵头负责，逐步推进，这样才有效果。
China Eastern Airlines is in the shifting period between digital transformation 1.0 and 2.0. From an IT perspective, China Eastern IT is actively and proactively transitioning from Cloud 1.0 to Cloud 2.0, which is like "changing wheels on the highway." Inevitably, we will encounter some problems and difficulties. The biggest challenges are: (1) Most of the IT application systems are based on the traditional architecture, 90% of the application systems need to be modified into micro-service architecture, and there is still a lack of implementation experience, which requires continuous Capacity improvement;(2) Cloud transformation covers the entire R&D system, involving all aspects of product, R&D, and foundation. Therefore, cloud transformation requires a systematic design plan, and a strong technical department takes the lead. Push forward, so that it has an effect.
How does China Eastern Airlines' cloud transformation work realize the synergy between IT and business?
Our Chairman Mr. Liu said at the company meeting that “Digitalization is the highest form of airlines”. We have always believed that digital transformation is something that IT and business departments need to face together. After so many years of information construction in the company, The leaders and employees at all levels of the company have firmly established the development concept of "IT-led". Informatization development and digital applications have fully penetrated the company's corporate management, safe operation, production and operation, etc., and have also produced positive results in the industry. At the same time, business departments and IT have more unified goals for digital transformation. In the actual IT construction process, we have formulated many management measures to continuously maintain the work collaboration between IT and business, and the effect is good, such as letting business personnel take the responsibility of product management, introducing agile practices, and building joint workshop projects, etc. , This will more guarantee the stability of the relationship between IT and business collaboration.
How to integrate the architecture of the enterprise inventory system with the architecture under the requirements of digital transformation?
From the perspective of digital transformation, to re-examine the architecture practice of traditional enterprises, consider three main directions:
1 Seek differences and reconstruct customer experience with digital means.
2 Seek a pattern and create new business models in the process of digital construction to meet digital business capabilities and better achieve the integration of new and old architectures.
3 Incubate innovation, through the management mechanism within the enterprise, cultivate and incubate the "killer" of business and technology, which forces the migration of traditional architecture and promotes the gradual establishment of digital architecture.
From the perspective of technical architecture, the current delivery technology changes with each passing day. DevOps can be delivered by informatization projects that run through the entire process seamlessly, but the transformation of the traditional architecture needs to follow the principle of "light to heavy". Platforms based on cloudification and big data technology are becoming more and more popular, and they need to be integrated in a way of "new changes for the elderly, and gradual replacement; new people, new establishments, new construction".
What protocols and standards are commonly used for data collection on the Internet of Things?
QTT、 DDS、 AMQP、XMPP、 JMS、 REST、 CoAP这几种协议都已被广泛应用，并且每种协议都有至少10种以上的代码实现，都宣称支持实时的发布/订阅的物联网协议，但是在具体物联网系统架构设计时，需考虑实际场景的通信需求，选择合适的协议。
Several protocols such as QTT, DDS, AMQP, XMPP, JMS, REST, and CoAP have been widely used, and each protocol has at least 10 kinds of code to implement. all claiming to support real-time publish/subscribe IoT protocols, However, when designing a specific IoT system architecture, it is necessary to consider the communication requirements of the actual scenario and select an appropriate protocol.
What kind of economic and social benefits have been achieved in the application of the Internet of Things in the industry?
Some industry's IoT applications have achieved social benefits, some have achieved economic benefits, and some have both. In the applications case I shared, the application of the Internet of Finance and Taxation reflects more social benefits and reflects the principle of tax collection. Internet of Things financial applications have both benefits, more reflected in economic benefits but it is still somewhat difficult to achieve a company’s market-oriented independent survival through economic benefits; Smart IoT applications are more reflected in social benefits which promoted the intelligence and digitization of suppliers, and at the same time improve the quality of the entire equipment products.
For the development and transformation trend of enterprise management software (such as ERP) in recent years, such as ERP cloud, or ERP replaced by a new term, how should enterprises choose and respond?
Whether it's the so-called Enterprise 4.0 era, Forrester's proposed transition from ERP to DOP, or the ERP cloud or ERP innovation platform, ERP's generational change is essentially an adaptation to newer digital needs. The new ERP has some commonalities, such as community-based, embedded ARTIFICIAL intelligence, low code, ease of use and improved user experience, 2-4 major version upgrades per year, etc. It is suggested that the enterprise customers have an open understanding of the new ERP and evaluate the suppliers' products, including the cases and best practices provided by the suppliers, in combination with the enterprise's needs, so as to select the most suitable products and services.
Systematic governance not only requires model-based representation methods, but also needs specific support methods and procedures. What is your take?
Current no organizations are lack of model, the problem is that the different models, such as process model, technology model and financial model, are separate with overlapped contents, in this case, models become islet again, data can't be converted and it is difficult to conduct correlation analysis, which results in the failure to form an effective comprehensive solution for the results from multi-perspective analysis, and even the similar data interpreted by the models are inconsistent. Therefore, from the perspective of implementation, although the model is the fundamental change means leading to accurate description, communication, analysis and simulation, if the supporting method and the process under the guidance of the method cannot be established, the systematic management will still be a castle in the air, unable to truly control the global changes.
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